Experimental methods

Experimental quantification of anisotropy in fabric

Waves are an engineer’s best friends or the worst enemies The purpose of this study is to develop and verify an indirect measure of coarse-grained soil fabric using shear wave velocities ($V_s$) for materials with different particle shapes. $V_s$ is obtained by a novel multi-bender element system which consists of five pairs of bender elements, with each pair capturing the shear wave velocity in a specific orientation along the specimen.